A number of people are rolling up their sleeves, others are hesitant. Be aware that there are around 15 of each of the four main injection types currently in development around the globe, with many alternatives in the East. If this your choice there is plenty of information out there. My personal decision, whether to or not and if so which type, will rest primarily on the determination of virus origin. Anything less is illogical. Long term studies, including animal trials, will also be in my consideration. To ascertain this is vital in any analysis. A number of questions need to be answered with robust logic applied. I am not seeing much of this in the discourse. I will certainly not respond to outside pressure, the behavioural nudge tactics applied in propaganda.
Article on the main vaccines in development.
Be aware there are 4 main approaches, some have long histories and others do not.
1) Whole virus – the most traditional approach.
2) Protein subunit
3) Nucleic acid
4) Viral vector
1) Many conventional vaccines use whole viruses to trigger an immune response. There are two main approaches. Live attenuated vaccines use a weakened form of the virus that can still replicate without causing illness. Inactivated vaccines use viruses whose genetic material has been destroyed so they cannot replicate, but can still trigger an immune response. Both types use well-established technology and pathways for regulatory approval, but live attenuated ones may risk causing disease in people with weak immune systems and often require careful cold storage, making their use more challenging in low-resource countries. Inactivated virus vaccines can be given to people with compromised immune systems but might also need cold storage
2) Subunit vaccines use pieces of the pathogen – often fragments of protein – to trigger an immune response. Doing so minimises the risk of side effects, but it also means the immune response may be weaker. This is why they often require adjuvants, to help boost the immune response. An example of an existing subunit vaccine is the hepatitis B vaccine.
Something on natural immunity post infection.
What Does It Mean When a Vaccine Contains an Inactivated Virus?
3) Nucleic acid vaccines use genetic material – either RNA or DNA – to provide cells with the instructions to make the antigen. In the case of COVID-19, this is usually the viral spike protein. Once this genetic material gets into human cells, it uses our cells’ protein factories to make the antigen that will trigger an immune response. The advantages of such vaccines are that they are easy to make, and cheap. Since the antigen is produced inside our own cells and in large quantities, the immune reaction should be strong. A downside, however, is that so far, no DNA or RNA vaccines have been licensed for human use, which may cause more hurdles with regulatory approval. In addition, RNA vaccines need to be kept at ultra-cold temperatures, -70C or lower, which could prove challenging for countries that don’t have specialised cold storage equipment, particularly low- and middle-income countries.
- What human cells exactly does the RNA vaccine go into? – 10 mins in.
- Why would a person who’s natural immune system, that successfully responded to the actual virus require a vaccine, if immune for more than 6 months anyway?
- When a person gets vaccinated for this virus, can they still be contagious if they get infected by someone?
- Considering this is a different type of vaccine using mrna, how can past safety records of two months apply to this vaccine?
- If the mRNA message disappears so quickly, how does it make enough spike protein to trigger an immune response?
- Safety tests can only test for known problems, unknown problems are only revealed by time.
4) Viral vector vaccines also work by giving cells genetic instructions to produce antigens. But they differ from nucleic acid vaccines in that they use a harmless virus, different from the one the vaccine is targeting, to deliver these instructions into the cell. One type of virus that has often been used as a vector is adenovirus, which causes the common cold. As with nucleic acid vaccines, our own cellular machinery is hijacked to produce the antigen from those instructions, in order to trigger an immune response. Viral vector vaccines can mimic natural viral infection and should therefore trigger a strong immune response. However, since there is a chance that many people may have already been exposed to the viruses being used as vectors, some may be immune to it, making the vaccine less effective.